Define organizational behavior
Organisational Behaviour is the study or research which helps in improving or increasing job performance, job satisfaction, innovation and also helps in developing leadership.
Distinguish Leadership versus management
Both leadership and management are different from each other. Leaders will have their followers and managers will have people who simply work for them. Leaders inspire their followers and managers prepare plans to achieve their goals and objectives. Leaders look for a relationship based working environment but the manager works in finding faults. Leaders always ask for opinions and suggestions but managers give instructions and directions. Managers use authoritarian style and leaders use motivational style. Managers give directions on what to do but leaders show what to do.
- Will have subordinates.
- Use authoritarian style.
- Only gives direction.
- Tells how to complete task.
- Will have followers.
- Use motivational style.
- Ask for options.
- Show how to complete task.
Personal leadership traits, trait theories
Hans Eysenck was a famous and leading personality and individual theorist in the 20th century. He combines the theories with psychological experiments using best measuring techniques with different individualism.
Hans Eysenck primarily studied physiology and genetics by using questionnaires. From that study he developed a theory named “Temperamant”, in this theory he explains that personality are based on genital(genes), by birth or even before. But from that he found some excluded aspects that affect personality. From the theory “Temperamant” he developed three indepent dimensions as “ E , N & P “.
E – Extraversion/Introversion
N – Neuroticism/Stability
P – Psychoticism/Socialization
The person with positive thinking and high stimulation (like talkative, good thinking etc..) is known to be Extraversion.
According to Eysenck, the optimal level of stimulation and performance will vary in each individual, it can be measured by skin conductance, sweating or with brain waves. At the low and high level of stimulation the performance will be low. Performance will be maximized when the stimulation is at mid-level.
Neuroticism is specially characterized or determined by the negative effects like depression and anxiety. According to Eysenck, neuroticism is the activation from the sympathetic nervous system and visceral brain. According to the study it could be measured by change in heart rate, blood pressure, cold hands etc. The person with low activation threshold will give up for emotions, reactions and uncontrolled behavior, such people show low performances.
Psychoticism was described as to be tough mindedness, aggressive, arrogant, unsympathetic etc.. It is considered as physiological based personality behavior. Eysenck explains that these characters are rooted due to an increase in the hormone named testosteron.
Here describes the three dimensions of Hans Eysenck’s personality model:
- Risk taking.
- Lack of autonomy.
- Guilt feeling.
- Tough minded.
- Ego centric.
- It is simply described and easily understandable.
- It measures or assess the stability of
- It’s measurements help for exact or for right
- Self assessing reports may give inaccurate results.
- It cannot give an explained reason.
- There is always a chance for a change in personality, then results become
The contingency theory explains that each and every leadership style is based on situation. The leaders should perform at maximum and also at minimum level according to certain places or situations. Fractionally the contingency theory is the same as trait theory because leaders always choose their style according to their situation and behavior of followers.
Cognitive theory is a leadership theory which is developed by Fred Fiedler and Joe Garcia. In this theory it explains that the performance of each individual is based on the level of the stress. Also it argues that a person shows extreme performance when stressless.
- Cognitive theory helps in exercising different habitats and making over different
- This theory helps in positioning a person in different leadership styles by testing the intelligence and management of stress.
- This theory helps in deriving a person from stressless and manage And describes the intelligence a person limits when he feels stress.
- There are two types of stress, psychological and physical ,and these two stresses show different habitats so it will not account in this theory.
- The intelligence of a person cannot be derived perfectly, so the differentiation of intelligence did not recognized in cognitive theory.
- Stress does not have any quantitative Without an instrumental measure it’s difficult to research or find solutions.
Situational theory expanded by Kenneth Blanchard and Paul Hersey. From this theory they explain that the manager or leader fits their style according to or for the development of the organization to influence their followers. Manager or leader should not use a single style; it should be changed according to the behavior of employees, and growth of the organization.
Vroom and Yetton model
Vroom and Yetton model is part of situational theory mainly focused on decision making approaches. It helps in taking better and aptable decisions which suit the situation. This model was developed by Victor Vroom and Phillip Yetton.
Vroom and Yetton’s five styles
- Autocratic Type 1(AI)
- Autocratic Type 2(AII)
- Consultative Type 1(CI)
- Consultative Type 2(CII)
- Group-Based Type 2 (GII)
● Autocratic Type 1(AI)
It is a complete autocratic style. In this style the leader or manager takes decision own.
● Autocratic Type 2(AII)
In this style the leader asks for information from the followers but the decision is completely taken by the leader.
● Consultative Type 1(CI)
This style surrounds individuals. Leader informs problems and information from individuals, but the leader takes out his own decisions and the followers cannot meet others too.
● Consultative Type 2(CII)
This style is entirely converted into groups, the leader asks ideas and problems from the groups and takes decisions alone. But in this style the followers can meet or discuss each other.
● Group-Based Type 2 (GII)
Group-Based style is completely involved in the group of followers, in this case the leader asks for information and also involves followers in decision making.
- It is flexible.
- It can involve in the decision making process.
- It helps in choosing accurate methodology in taking decisions.
- It is an autonomous procedure.
- It does not consider personal factors.
- The questions provided will not have a determined or specific method.
Behavioral theory is the scientific study to evaluate the mood and actions of individuals to know which impact pattern influences the environment of the team members.
Managerial Grid OR Leadership Grid
Managerial or Leadership grid is the graphical representation of leaders’ assessment on the difference between importance of employees and task.
Managerial or Leadership grid derived by Dr. Robert Blake and Dr. Jane Mouton in 1964. As a result from this study, this grid identifies five types of behaviors of leaders and they arranged and demonstrated them in a grid.
According to this grid the leaders shows such behaviors:
- Lack of change in leadership style.
- Compelling the followers to achieve or meet goals.
- Motivating or supporting team to run up goals
Applying of Managerial or Leadership grid
Step One: Identification of managerial style.
Step Two:Identification of areas to be developed and improved the leadership style. Step Three: Put the context in the grid.
This model is mainly used by managers, so they use questionnaires to find out or to identify the situation of organization goals and employees. The main aim of this model is to ensure that the employee gets 9,9 within the training. And also the managers can use different leadership styles which results for better productivity.
This model does not consider the factors that affect the working process. It also affects the team productivity and motivation.